Ontologia formale dell’azione
In this project, a formal ontology of action named OntoSTIT+, is developed. It assumes branching time, allows the same action token to unfold in a different way (some of its courses can be successful and some of them not), provides for the classification of action types, incorporates mental attitudes of an agent and divides all action tokens into activities, accomplishments, achievements and states.
Formally, OntoSTIT+ is an eleven sorted first-order logic, extended with belief, desire and intention modal operators, and has around seventy axioms and twenty definitions. Each axiom and definition is justified and motivated by reference to a relevant research field such as linguistics, philosophy of action and AI. OntoSTIT+ is also based on the works in the modal logic of agency. This interdisciplinary character of OntoSTIT+, on the one hand, complies with the methodology of creating formal ontologies, and on the other hand, unifies the research fields, whose results (concerning action and agency) have been taken into account in OntoSTIT+. In general, OntoSTIT+ is a ground for many theories of action, and hence, allows for a comparison between these theories, and for a possible integration and interdisciplinary research across research areas.
Moreover, OntoSTIT+ is a theory which specifies the meaning of the concepts of agency and action. It facilitates meaning negotiation among agents, as long as the concept of action is taken into account. OntoSTIT+ can be also successfully applied for designing practical reasoning and action execution of the rational, artificial agents, and for an ontology based natural language processing.